Assessing Households’ Sanitation and Sewage Management Practices in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria

  • Sunday Kazahshii Habila
Keywords: Containment, Domestic Sewage, Sustainable Development, Open Defecation, Practices.


This study assessed Households’ Sanitation and Sewage Management Practices in Kaduna Metropolis. Published and unpublished literature on Domestic sewage, Sanitation Chain, and World Health Organisation (WHO) and Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) reports were reviewed to form the conceptual framework of the study. A sample size of 1,874 houses were drawn from a sample frame of 88,621 houses representing the city core, North, South, East, and western sectors of the metropolis. The systematic Sampling Technique was used to collect primary data from households using a questionnaire and filling of checklist. Cross Tabulations were used to analyze data, while, pictures expressed additional facts and discussion of results in prose. The variables assessed were derived from the WHO, UNICEF, and JMP 2018 SDG monitoring template for Water Sanitation and Hygiene. The study ascertained that; most (52.9%) households use Water Closet. Majority (61.2%) do not share toilets, yet, not open defecation free. Toilets (81.1%) are built with cement blocks, 89.4% have roofs, 84.5% have lockable doors, 72.5% of pit latrines have no covers, 53.8% use water and soap as hand washing and cleansing material, containments are 72.2% offset link to toilets, with most (40.7%) horizontal buffer of < 15mto water source. Majority (89%) of households use motorised methods to empty filled pits. Recommendations such as public education and enlightenment on appropriate practice, establishment of an abatement committee to combat emerging Open defecation, biogas plants for alternative energy, and securing areas that are hot spots to Open Defecation (OD) forms were suggested.


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How to Cite
Sunday , S. K. H. (2023). Assessing Households’ Sanitation and Sewage Management Practices in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria. URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING REVIEW, 9(1), 64-77. Retrieved from